This research into the neural regulation of blood flow is important for two reasons. First, fMRI-based approaches to investigate brain function are actually measuring blood flow, which is an imperfect correlate of neural activity. For this reason, it critically important to understand the precise relationship between brain activity and blood flow in order to interpret fMRI. Second, there are a large number of disease conditions in which neurovascular coupling is compromised, leading to neurological dysfunction. Our hope is that, by understanding how neurovascular coupling is regulated, we may be able to develop better therapies to prevent neurological conditions that stem, at least in part, from defects in neurovascular coupling.